12/3/18 Affirmative Action – Affirmative Defense

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  • Affirmative Action

Policies of governments and other institutions, private and public, intended to promote employment, contracting, educational, and other opportunities for members of historically disadvantaged groups. Because they may favor some groups over others, affirmative action policies must be narrowly tailored to meet the institution’s legitimate goals, such as remedying the effects of past discrimination or promoting full diversity in a school setting.

  • Affirmative Defense

When a defendant in a civil lawsuit files a response, usually called an “answer,” the answer will state the defendant’s denials of the claims made. In addition, the defendant may state affirmative defenses that excuse or justify the behavior on which the lawsuit is based. For example, an affirmative defense of “unclean hands” argues that the person bringing the lawsuit has acted badly in a way that should preclude any finding against the defendant.

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