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Including, Namely, Comprising

25/8/17 Including, Namely, Comprising

Including, Namely, Comprising

When laying out a list, introduce it with the term including only if the list is not exhaustive. Otherwise, use namely or comprising, both of which signal an exhaustive list. It is a maxim of judicial construction that including signals a nonexclusive list. But if your writing may be the subject of litigation, you should be explicit and use a phrase such as including but not limited to or consisting only of.


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