Terminology Related to Crimes (Part II)
21/09/16 Terminology Related to Crimes (Part II)
- manslaughter: from Old English mann, “person”+slaeht, “act of killing.” Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a human being without malicious intent. Voluntary manslaughter is committed in the heat of passion, or while committing another felony. Involuntary manslaughter is the result of accident, such as vehicular manslaughter.
- moral turpitude: turpitude is from a Latin word meaning “vile, ugly, base, shameful.” Defining the term in a legal sense is a slippery undertaking. Crimes of moral turpitude include: murder, voluntary manslaughter, rape, domestic violence, prostitution, embezzlement, arson, bribery, blackmail, perjury, and theft.
- murder: from Old English morðor. “secret killing of a person.” Murder is intentionally causing the death of another, either through premediation focused on a particular individual, or by extreme indifference to human life. First degree murder is defined by federal and state laws, which vary.
- prostitution: from Latin prostituere, “to expose to prostitution, to expose publicly.” Commission of a sex act for money or some other thing of value.
- receiving: accepting property for use, resale, or disposal that is thought or known by the receiver to have been stolen.
- robbery: from Old French rober, from a Germanic source meaning “to rob, spoil, plunder.” Robbery is theft committed openly and with force.
- stalking: With the sense “pursue stealthily, the verb stalk comes from Old English –stealcian, as in bestealcian “to steal along.” An early meaning of stalker was “one who prowls for the purposes of theft.” In today’s usage, stalking is a crime that involves the intentional and repeated following and harassing of another person to the extent that the targeted person fears bodily harm.
- theft: depriving another of property. Theft implies subterfuge, while robbery is the open taking of property. Burglary is committed when the thief breaks into a building:
- treason: AngloNorman treson from a Latin word meaning “a handing over, surrender,” and influenced by Old French trair “betray.” Treason is the crime of siding with the enemy, either to fight against one’s own country, or to offer “aid and comfort” to the enemy.
- trespass: from Old French trespasser, “to pass beyond or across.” Trespass is entering another’s property without permission. If it is with an illegal intent, it’s a crime. Illegal dumping is a form of trespass.