14/06/2016 How to Use the Term “INCLUDING”

e-legal lesson

Including for namely. Including should not be used to introduce an exhaustive list, for it implies that the list is only partial. In the words of one federal court, “It is hornbook law that the use of the word including indicates that the specified list… is illustrative, not exclusive.”

Example:
Several business law courses will be offered next year, including

[read namely] one this summer and four next year.
Included for including. Included for including must be a rare error: “The agreement provides that it is an Arizona agreement and that it shall be governed by the laws of the State of Arizona in all matters, included [read including] but not limited to validity, obligation, interpretation, construction, and termination.”